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The return of Great Spotted Woodpeckers

Over the last five years woodland on Ireland’s east coast has started to reverberate with the drumming of a very welcome blow-in. This feature documenting that recolonisation was first published in the October 2013 edition of Bird Watching magazine in the UK.

Great Spotted Woodpecker in flight
Adult great spotted woodpeckers at a nest hole in Co. Wicklow woodland. (Photo by Mark Carmody).

Ireland is home to some truly fantastic wildlife and offers some outstanding birding opportunities. But for all of its undoubted birding charms, one thing visiting UK birders are often surprised by are the obvious absentees.

There are more than 450 bird species on the official Irish list, but being isolated for more than 8,000 years has its drawbacks. The island gets plenty of passing visitors each spring and autumn, is an important wintering ground for waders and wildfowl, and is the first point of “landfall” for many an American vagrant, but when it comes to breeding birds Ireland falls some way short of its nearest European neighbours.

You wouldn’t think a narrow strip of water like the Irish sea could present much of a barrier to birds, but relatively sedentary species like the tawny owl, willow tit, marsh tit, nuthatch and others are notably absent. Perhaps the most curious gap in Ireland’s avifauna though, until recently at least, was the complete absence of woodpeckers.

Woodpeckers are well represented across continental Europe, but even the most widespread and cosmopolitan species, the practically ubiquitous great spotted woodpecker, was only ever recorded as a rare winter visitor to Ireland, with solitary birds turning up from Scandinavia and Northern Europe during documented “irruption” years, and then usually in small numbers.

There is some evidence that great spotted woodpeckers were once a native breeding species in Ireland — most notably the femurs of two birds recovered from an excavation of the Edenvale cave complex near Ennis in Co. Clare in the early 1900s. These were subsequently carbon dated back to the Bronze Age. Details of when exactly Ireland lost its woodpeckers are shrouded in the mists of history, but most experts concur that their extinction here is most likely to coincide with the widespread deforestation of the island during the 17th and 18th centuries.

Great spotted woodpeckers… an Irish rarity

To give you an idea of just how unusual it was to see a great spotted woodpecker in Ireland let’s take a look at the sighing records over the last few decades.

In the 15 years between 1989 and 2004 there were only three confirmed reports of great spotted woodpeckers on the island of Ireland. The following three years saw a change in that pattern, with three records in 2005, six in 2006 and a further four in 2007.

All bar one of the historic Irish records occurred between September and April, with the majority falling between November and February. But from 2005 onwards there seemed to be a shift in that trend, with birds turning up earlier in the year.

A young red-crowned bird seen in a Co. Wicklow garden on Ireland’s east coast in September 2005 sparked debate in the Irish birding community. Could this be a locally bred bird, or just an early dispersal from Britain or the continent? There was no way to know for sure.

In 2006 rumours began to circulate that a pair of great spotted woodpeckers had reared young successfully in Northern Ireland, then in early June 2007 a bird was heard calling in prime mixed-woodland habitat in Co. Wicklow. A pattern started to emerge, a pattern that hinted at the tantalising prospect of great spotted woodpeckers naturally re-colonising Ireland.

2008 turned out to be a pivotal year in the story of Irish woodpeckers. Several reports of drumming birds in early spring were a sign of things to come. Then Dick Coombes, coordinator of the Countryside Bird Survey with BirdWatch Ireland (the Irish Bird Life International partner) and a member on the Irish Rare Birds Committee (IRBC), found a pair of great spotted woodpeckers engaged in classic courtship behaviour in a Wicklow woodland. He subsequently lost track of them, but during the course of that year there were no fewer than 20 woodpecker sightings involving at least 23 birds. Significantly 14 of those records were reported between April and August, during the great spotted woodpecker breeding season.

The push to find breeding proof

Juvenille Great Spotted Woodpecker at feeder in Wicklow
The “original” juvenille great spotted woodpecker photographed at a peanut feeder in Co. Wicklow in July 2008 (Photo by Dick Coombes)

The real excitement came in July of 2008, when a red-crowned juvenile great spotted woodpecker turned up at a bird feeder in a County Wicklow garden. Speculation was rife as to the origin of this young bird. A general consensus emerged: surely it was too early in the year, and the bird too young, for this to be an overseas interloper.

Could this be the first ever record of an Irish-bred woodpecker? Dick Coombes’s first thought was that he simply had to see the bird for himself.

“We get so many outlandish claims at BirdWatch HQ,” said Dick. “Even when I did see the bird I was hyper cautious because it was late July and there was an outside chance it was an early bird out of Scandinavia – perhaps a forerunner of an irruption.”

The initial sighting was followed by reports of another three juveniles in County Wicklow, and one from adjacent Co. Dublin. Autumn / winter 2008 failed to produce typical irruption-style woodpecker sightings in Ireland, and bird observatories along Britain’s east coast reported no sign of woodpecker movement there. Everything pointed towards these 2008 juveniles being Irish bred birds, but the crucial unequivocal proof was still missing.

Dick Coombes was determined to find that proof. He galvanised a team of like-minded volunteers to scour Wicklow’s woodlands for signs of breeding woodpeckers during the 2009 season.

“The team is very much an ad hoc group of birders smitten by woodpeckers. They are good in the field, have a good ear, patience and stamina, and can be trusted to be discreet about nest sites,” said Dick. “I kind of assumed the role of coordinator, as in addition to finding my own nests, I make a point of getting to all nests found and make repeat visits as much as possible to gauge success.”

Surveying great spotted woodpeckers in Irish woodland is an activity well and truly in its infancy. Although they were all experienced birders the “woodpecker team” was on a steep learning curve as they tried to pin down the birds.

You might think a blackbird-sized bird with striking black and white plumage, liberally daubed with scarlet, would be easy to see, but great spotted woodpeckers are notoriously elusive. Often solitary, they tend to favour higher branches in the forest canopy, and have an irritating knack for sitting motionless on the far side of a branch, just out of sight. They can also be frustratingly silent when they’re not drumming, making them tricky to locate, especially when you’re searching for a relatively small pool of birds across a large expanse of woodland.

Drumming then was the obvious starting point, and that’s where the team focussed its initial efforts. They soon found drumming birds, but confirming established pairs and occupied nest holes proved a much trickier business.

Gradually long, often fruitless hours in the woods began to pay off, more drummers were located, sexes established and pairs confirmed. As spring progressed the scenario began to repeat itself up and down County Wicklow. It soon became clear that the scale of this woodpecker colonisation was much larger than anyone had realised.

But that elusive proof of breeding was still missing.

The breakthrough finally came on the 2nd of May 2009, when the first nest hole was found… and a birds head peeked out of the opening, showing it was occupied. The newly excavated nest was about a metre below an old nest hole… evidence perhaps that the birds had bred in the same tree before. The team found a second occupied nest the following day, and by the 24th of May 2009 had confirmed seven occupied nests in total.

Great spotted woodpeckers are now well and truly established in Wicklow, with the number of confirmed occupied nests growing year on year from the initial seven in 2009 to twenty five in 2013. The true extent of the budding Irish population is probably significantly larger.

“In each of the last few years, you need to add five to ten cases of proved breeding at other sites, like juveniles or birds carrying food,” explained Dick. “On top of that we would know of at least fifteen to twenty sites where birds were present but breeding was not proved, mainly due to time constraints. It’s not difficult to imagine that the Republic of Ireland population could be in the order of 50 to 75 pairs now.”

Where did they come from?

An adult Great Spotted Woodpecker at a nest hole with food
An adult Great Spotted Woodpecker at a nest hole with food (Photo by Mark Carmody)

One of the burning questions the woodpecker team had once they’d successfully established breeding was the origin of this new Irish population. Where had these birds come from, and what had triggered this range expansion into Ireland?

Britain, of course, was the obvious candidate — but there was also the possibility that Irish birds had originated from northern European populations, arriving during irruption years and staying on to breed. To find out the team secured funding from The Heritage Council, and and turned to geneticists at University College Dublin for help (McDevitt et al, “The origins of Great Spotted Woodpeckers Dendrocopos major colonizing Ireland revealed by mitochondrial DNA”, Bird Study). Using shed feathers from vacated nest holes the scientists compared the DNA of the new Irish population with established populations in Britain and on the continent.

The study confirmed that the Irish colonists are almost certainly of British rather than continental origin. It also suggests that the Irish population is derived from more than one location in Britain, which bodes well for its genetic diversity.

In Britain the great spotted woodpecker has seen a dramatic increase in its population over the last forty years — with growth of around 400%. Despite their inherent reluctance to travel, sheer pressure of numbers may well have forced young British woodpeckers on the West coast to make the relatively short hop across the Irish sea in search of new breeding territories.

Looking to the future

Feather from Great Spotted Woodpecker nest for DNA analysis
Collecting feathers from Great Spotted Woodpecker nest holes for DNA analysis (Photo by Dick Coombes)

While great spotted woodpeckers are habitually a sedentary species, they are spreading slowly from their Wicklow stronghold. Last year a nest was confirmed in County Wexford and another in County Kilkenny. Juveniles were seen in County Louth last year and at least one other year, there is suspected breeding at several locations in counties Dublin and Meath, and other unconfirmed reports from counties Offaly and Roscommon.

“While the increase in 5 years has been slow enough, it has been steady,” said Dick. “There appear to be plenty of woodland invertebrates to sustain adults and hungry young in the nest. Great spotted woodpeckers are adaptable to a range of habitats and there are now dozens of documented cases of birds taking supplementary food in gardens. So I think while the stronghold may well remain in Wicklow they should be in all counties in ten years, with a big bias in eastern and southern counties.”

It’s still very early days for Ireland’s woodpeckers. Compared to Britain great spotted woodpeckers are still very scarce, even in their Wicklow stronghold. But all of the evidence suggests they are building on a strong foundation, and that given time, and a little luck, the sound of this versatile and adaptable woodpecker’s drumming will eventually be heard throughout the country.

A Numbers Game:

Great Spotted Woodpeckers in Ireland

No of NestsYear
Stats on Great Spotted Woodpecker nests in Ireland



  • Margaret

    I have a great spotted woodpecker coming to my suburban garden birdfeeder every day, in Dublin, close to rathfarnham village. Can’t believe it, it’s been here every day for a week now. (May ‘24)

  • Margaret

    I have a great spotted woodpecker coming to my suburban garden birdfeeder every day, in Dublin, close to rathfarnham village. Can’t believe it, it’s been here every day for a week now.

  • Henry Selby-Smith

    Great spotted woodpecker heard and seen in woods near Easkey, Co. Sligo

  • Richard Romer

    January 10 2024 drumming heard in Rathcrona Kilmaley Co. Clare. Drumming all day between 3 large Sitka and 1 radiata pine shelter belt. Open fields and lots of plantations of varying ages and a good species mix.

  • Geoff Stebbings

    We have a (probably) female Great Spotted Woodpecker visit the peanut feeder sporadically, mostly in winter. I have not seen it for a while but it was back today. It is very cautious but the blue and great tits all scatter when it arrives. The surrounding are is largely grass fields but there are many mature trees, including oaks and conifers in hedges and ‘drumming’ is regularly heard, especially in spring.

  • Margaret Cuddihy

    Definitely heard a woodpecker in the wood beside us (Co Kilkenny) today and yesterday.

  • Margaret Cuddihy

    Definitely heard a woodpecker yesterday and today in the wood beside us (Co Kilkenny) . Never heard one at this time of year before?

  • We have a pair of great spotted woodpeckers using our bird feeder near Borris, Co Carlow.

  • David Gray

    One at the peanuts on my bird feeder in Ravensdale, Co. Louth this morning and managed to get 45 seconds of video.

  • We have a pair in our garden in Co Wicklow. They especially love peanuts and are very cautious.

  • Mary Cotter

    We’ve just found a dead Woodpecker outside our conservatory, We’ve seen it a few mornings lately feeding on bird feeders. It’s so sad.

  • Unfortunately one flew into my parents conservatory window and died. Beautiful bird.

  • We have a woodpecker visiting our garden almost daily, took me ages to identify it as my old wildlife book told me that there were none here .we’re in wexford and since seeing it I’m hearing about more and more sightings within the county

  • John Doyle

    Saw a single Great spotted woodpecker climbing up a tree in Ferns Co. Wexford over the bank holiday weekend

  • Hi I’ve got two great spotted woodpeckers in my garden now. The female feeding from a nut basket and a male sometimes watches from fence … location Feeny co Derry

  • Dara O'Malley

    We’ve had several coming to our birdfeeders for a few years – neighbours too. Now they’re around every day. Spotted a nest, high in a tree with a grub carrying bird, feeding noisy young. Just outside Downpatrick.

  • Damian Campbell

    Spotted 2 South Belfast Lagan Meadows last week

  • Richard

    I just heard one drumming on a large beech tree in Johnstown Castle Wexforrd. I saw two flying nearby a few days later

  • Michael Collins

    Never saw or heard a woodpecker until one turned up on 14/05/21 in our garden… He’s around every day since (2 weeks) with numerous daily visits to the bird feeders. He’s very aggressive towards other birds eating from the feeders… I’ve loads of clear photos’ and videos as the feeders are close to our kitchen window.
    (Near, Stoneyford, Co. Kilkenny)

  • Jim Donnelly

    I just spotted a Greater Spotted Woodpecker in Clogrennane Forest Park Carlow.

  • Woodpecker landed on low wall in rural garden outside Hillsborough, Co Down. Stayed only 45 seconds so frustratingly no photo.

  • Niall Ó Catháin

    Woodpecker heard for first time last year and again this year near Driom nDamh ancient woodland, Sleacht Néill, Maghera Co. Derry.

  • James Collier

    Heard one yesterday morning at my mother’s in Thomastown, Kilkenny. I couldn’t catch a glimpse of the actual bird but it was definitely the sound of one drumming.

  • Eamon Glennon

    Videoed one today at my bird feeder in North Roscommon. Excited….. 🙂

  • Heard a woodpecker drumming in woods in south Wexford yesterday, got a recording but couldn’t see it.

  • Catherine Rice

    Out walking in Emo Laois today, I heard knocking up high in a tree. It is the second time I have heard
    the same woodpecker sounding drumming, in Emo. I hope it means they are breeding locally.

  • Tracy Millea

    Today, I videoed a male woodpecker feeding in our garden. I have also seen the female feeding too on numerous occasions. Very shy birds . If I go near the window to picture they fly away!! Feeling quiet privileged to have them come to my garden. I live beside Foxcover Wood, Kilkenny.

  • Kerrie Travers

    My dad has just shown me a video he took on his camera of a woodpecker drumming one of our massive old chestnut (I think) trees out the back of our family home i grew up in in cabra co. down. He said there hasn’t been one around for at least 20years until now. Was amazing seeing the video!

  • Luke Grennan

    I saw and photographed a pair in my garden in Tullogher, Co. Kilkenny today. One was picking at an opening in an ESB pole. This is the first time I have seen them in this country.

  • paul dowling

    Great Spotted woodpecker feed at bird feeder 22/1/2021 2.35pm
    Raheengraney South Wicklow,

    • Male Woodpecker on birdfeeder Parkbridge, 14 Feb 21 and comes back quite often

  • There is a pair of wood peckers in the wood behind my house. Wexford

  • Gerry Creaven

    I have seen a woodpecker eating out of my garden bird feeder, they were picking at the fat balls ❤️ Theirs a wood only to miles from my house…! Gerry from Galway

  • Ella Barron

    We Have a Greater Spotter Woodpecker On the Bird nuts in our Garden and we re all delighted to see it we never did see one before in Northern Ireland ,such great excitement it comes each day at Noon to the Bird feeder ,such a beautiful Bird .

    Nuttscorner CoAntrim

  • Pat Barron

    Spotted a male great spotted woodpecker feeding its chick on Sunday 14th June 2020 near wexford Town, have photos and video of them.

  • Terence O Leary

    Have a woodpecker in our woods in Cork .


    Just heard a woodpecker along the Tollpath on the Lagan near the Lockkeepers Cafe. 24/4/20


    Just heard one along the Tollpath on the Lagan near the Lockkeepers Cafe.

  • Seamus O'Neill

    Have a lovely video clip of a woodpecker on a bird feeder in Cavan. Last Friday it flew into our conservatory window.
    We nursed it back to life overnight with a combination of heat (hot water bottle ) and a little sugar and water. Next morning – yesterday it sat on my hand for a few seconds before flying off.

  • Marie-Louise Hughes

    Photographed a Great Spotted Woodpecker in my back garden last week. Dungannon Co Tyrone

  • Michael Stafford

    Spotted woodpecker in Taghmon area Co Wexford on 5th November 2019.

  • Sinead Redmond

    Also regularly hear woodpecker drumming in our large oak and beech trees last 2 years in Enniscorthy rural area

  • Jennifer

    Just saw a great spotted woodpecker on a peanut feeder in Co. Cavan!

  • Clare Gowran

    30.06.19 Have just seen a Great Spotted Woodpecker, an hour ago, feeding at my bird feeder here in West Wicklow on the mountain side of Blessington lakes. I saw one here, for the first time, in the autumn time a year and a half ago also. Amazing to see…

  • A pair of great spotted woodpeckers feeding at our peanut feeders in our garden for the last week Craigavon Co. Down

  • Andrewhand

    There are two currently feeding in my back garden a youngster being feed by a parent eating peanuts.

  • sarah Mc

    Great spotted woodpecker feeding on our bird feeders for past four days

  • Kevin Concannon

    I think I heard 2 woodpeckers in mayo this morning on my farm

  • Richard

    Heard a woodpecker drumming near Sallins today

  • John Forsyth


    Just located a great spotted woodpecker feeding chick in nest. Enniscorthy area

  • Laura Byrne

    Saw a woodpecker at our bird feeder this morning in Kilmacanogue, co. Wicklow, not shy kept coming back. Have photos

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